Countess Karolina Maria Lanckorońska (1898–2002) was born in Gars am Kamp, Lower Austria and was a member of the Polish-Galician aristocracy.
She studied art history in Vienna and taught at Lviv University. During the German occupation, she worked for the Polish resistance and was arrested numerous times, sentenced to death and ended up in the Ravensbrück concentration camp, which she managed to escape from at the end of the war. Her book Wspomnienie pośmiertne (War Memoirs) provides descriptions of the occupations of Lviv. Karolina Lanckorońska died in Rome at the age of 104.